AI6302 - FLUID MECHANICS AND HYDRAULICS (Syllabus) 2013-regulation Anna University

AI6302

FLUID MECHANICS AND HYDRAULICS

LPTC

3003

OBJECTIVES:
• To introduce the students to the mechanics of fluids through a thorough understanding of the properties of the fluids, behaviour of fluids under static conditions. The dynamics of fluids is introduced through the control volume approach which gives an integrated understanding of the transport of mass, momentum and energy.
• To expose to the applications of the conservation laws to a) flow measurements b) flow through pipes (both laminar and turbulent) and c) forces on vanes.
• To introduce the students to various hydraulic engineering problems like open channel flows and hydraulic pumps. At the completion of the course, the student should be able to relate the theory and practice of problems in hydraulic engineering.

UNIT I

PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS

9+3

Properties of fluids – definition – units of measurement - Mass density – specific weight, specific volume – specific gravity - equation of state – perfect gas - Viscosity – vapour pressure – compressibility and elasticity - surface tension – capillarity. Fluid pressure and measurement – simple, differential and micro manometers - Mechanical gauges – calibration. Hydrostatic forces on surfaces – total pressure and centre of pressure - Horizontal- vertical and inclined plane surface - Pressure diagram – total pressure on curved surface. Archimedes principles – buoyancy – meta centre – metacentric height.

UNIT II

FLUID FLOW ANALYSIS

9+3

Types of fluid flow – velocity and acceleration of a fluid particle - Rotational – irrotational circulation and vorticity - Flow pattern – stream line – equipotential line – stream tube path line – streak line – flow net – velocity potential – stream function. Principles of conservation of mass – energy – momentum – continuity equation in Cartesian co-ordinates - Euler's equation of motion.

UNIT III

FLOW MEASUREMENTS

9+3

Bernoulli's equation – applications - Venturimeter – orifice meter – nozzle meter - rota meter – elbow meter - pitot tube – Orifice – sharp edged orifice discharging free – submerged orifice – mouth piece - Flow through orifice under variable head – time of emptying a tank with and without inflow. Flow through pipes – laminar and turbulent flow in pipes - Reynold's experiment - Darcy – Weisbach equation for friction head loss – Chezy's formula – Manning's formula – Hazen-William‟s formula - Major and minor losses in pipes – hydraulic gradient line – energy gradient line. Siphon – water hammer in pipes – gradual and sudden closure of valves

UNIT IV

OPEN CHANNEL FLOW

9+3

Types of flow in channel – uniform flow – most economical section of channel – rectangular – trapezoidal. Specific energy and critical depth - momentum in open channel flow – specific force – critical flow – computation. Flow measurement in channels – notches – rectangular, Cipolletti and triangular – float method - Flow measurement in rivers/ streams/ canals – weirs – free and submerged flow – current meter – Parshall flume.

UNIT V

DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS & PUMPS

9+3

Dimensional analysis – Fundamental dimensions – dimensional homogeneity – Rayleigh‟s method and Buckingham Pi-Theorem - concept of geometric, kinematic and dynamic similarity. Important non dimensional numbers – Reynolds, Froude, Euler, Mach and Weber - Pump terminology – suction lift, suction head, delivery head, discharge, water horse power – selection of pump capacity. Centrifugal pumps – components – working – types of pumps and impellers - Priming – cavitation – specific speed – characteristic curves. Turbine and submersible pumps - Jet pump – jet assembly - Other pumps – Air lift pump - reciprocating pump - sludge pump and vacuum pump- Hydraulic ram.

TOTAL : 45 PERIODS

OUTCOMES:
• The students will be able to get a basic knowledge of fluids in static, kinematic and dynamic equilibrium.
• They will also gain the knowledge of the applicability of physical laws in addressing problems in hydraulics.

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Modi, P.N. and Seth S.M., Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics. Standard Publishers Distributors, New Delhi, 2010.
2. Bansal, R.K., A text book of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machinery, Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd., New Delhi, 2002.
3. Jagdish Lal,. Hydraulic Machines. Metropolitan Book House, New Delhi, 2000.

REFERENCES:
1. Garde, R.J., Fluid Mechanics through problems. New Age International Publishers (P) Ltd., New Delhi, 2002.
2. Michael A.M. and S.D.Khepar, Water Well and Pump Engineering. Tata McGraw Hill Co. New Delhi, 2005.
3. Michael A.M. Irrigation Theory and Practice, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi, 2008.
Web sites:
1. www.onesmartclick.com/engineering/fluid-mechanics.html
2. www.it.iitb.ac.in/vweb/engr/civil/fluid_mech/course.html