### FD3301 Syllabus - Fluid Mechanics And Mechanical Operations - 2021 Regulation Anna University

## FD3301 Syllabus - Fluid Mechanics And Mechanical Operations - 2021 Regulation Anna University

FD3301 | FLUID MECHANICS AND MECHANICAL OPERATIONS | LTPC |
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**3104**

**COURSE OBJECTIVES:**

To enable the students to understand the

• The mechanics of fluids through a thorough understanding of the properties of the fluids, behaviour of fluids under static conditions

• Dynamics of fluids is introduced through the control volume approach which gives an integrated understanding of the transport of mass, momentum and energy.

• Applications of the conservation laws to a) flow measurements b) flow through pipes (both laminar and turbulent) and c) forces on vanes.

• Mechanical and Contact equilibrium separation processes of the components and their series of unit operations.

• The mechanics of fluids through a thorough understanding of the properties of the fluids, behaviour of fluids under static conditions

• Dynamics of fluids is introduced through the control volume approach which gives an integrated understanding of the transport of mass, momentum and energy.

• Applications of the conservation laws to a) flow measurements b) flow through pipes (both laminar and turbulent) and c) forces on vanes.

• Mechanical and Contact equilibrium separation processes of the components and their series of unit operations.

UNIT I | PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS | 12 |
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Properties of fluids – definition – units of measurement - Mass density –
specific weight, specific volume – specific gravity equation of state –
perfect gas - Viscosity – vapour pressure – compressibility and elasticity
surface tension – capillarity. Basic equation of fluid statics; pressure
variation in a static field; pressure measuring devices– manometer,
U-tube, inclined tube, force on submerged bodies (straight, inclined),
center of pressure. Basic equations in integral form: Basic laws for a
system; continuity equation- in Cartesian co-ordinates - Euler's equation
of motion, momentum balance equation-Introduction to Navier Stoke’s and
Euler’s Equation, Types of fluid flow- Introduction to rotational and
irrotational flow, momentum correction factor. Fluid pressure and
measurement – simple, differential and micro manometers - Mechanical gages
– calibration. Pressure diagram – total pressure on curved surface.
Archimedes principles

UNIT II | FLOW MEASUREMENTS & OPEN CHANNEL FLOW | 12 |
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Introduction; flow of incompressible fluid in circular pipe; laminar flow
for Newtonian fluid; HagenPoiseullie equation; introduction to turbulent
flow in a pipe-Prandtl mixing length; energy consideration in pipe flow,
Bernoulli’s equation–kinetic energy correction factor; Reynold's
experiment, Darcy – Weisbach equation for friction head loss – Chezy's
formula – Manning's formula – Hazen-William’s formula - Major and minor
losses in pipes; friction factor-Fanning and Darcy, Moody diagram; major
and minor losses; Pipe fittings and valves, equivalent diameter. Flow
measurement: Introduction; general equation for internal flow meters;
Orifice meter; Venturi meter; Weirs, concept of area meters: rotameter;
Local velocity measurement: Pitot tube. Hot wire anemometer, mass
flowmeter.

UNIT III | DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS & PUMPS | 12 |
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Dimensional analysis – concept of geometric, kinematic and dynamic
similarity.Important nondimensional numbers – Reynolds, Froude, Euler,
Mach and Weber. Fluidization: Introduction; different types of
fluidizations; minimum fluidization velocity; governing equation;
pneumatic conveying and other industrial uses. Fluid moving machines:
Basic classification of pumps: Non-Mechanical Pumps-steam jet ejector, air
lift pump, Mechanical pump: Centrifugal pumps- cavitation, NPSH, Positive
displacement pumps (rotary, piston, plunger, diaphragm pumps); pump
specification; basic characteristics curves for centrifugal pumps; fan,
blower and compressor.

UNIT IV | SEPARATION AND SIZE REDUCTION | 12 |
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Filtration –filter media –-constant rate filtration – constant pressure
filtration – filter cake resistancefiltration equipment – rotary vacuum
filter – filter press- sedimentation – Stoke’s law, sedimentation of
particles in gas-cyclones – rate of separations – centrifuge equipment.
Crystallization – equilibrium - solubility and equilibrium diagram – rate
of crystal growth – equilibrium crystallization-crystallization equipment
– classification of distillation –Swenson-Walker vacuum crystallizers-
Size reduction – grinding and cutting –Rittinger’s, Bond’s and Kick’s laws
for crushing-size reduction equipment – crushers – jaw crusher, gyratory
crusher-crushing rolls – grinders – hammer mills – rolling compression
mills - attrition, rod, ball and tube mills – construction and operation.

UNIT V | CONTACT EQUILIBRIUM SEPARATION | 12 |
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Contact equilibrium separation processes – concentrations – gas-liquid and
solid-liquid equilibrium – equilibrium concentration relationships –
operating conditions-calculation of separation in contact – equilibrium
processes-gas absorption – rate of gas absorption –equilibrium gas –
absorption 56 equipment-properties of tower packing – types – construction
– flow through packed towers-extraction – rate of extraction
extractor-extraction of fine material – Dorr agitator – continuous
leaching – decantation systems – extraction towers-washing – equipment.

**TOTAL: 60 PERIODS**

**COURSE OUTCOMES:: Upon completion of the course, students will be able to**

On completion of the course, • The students will be able to get a basic
knowledge of fluids in static, kinematic and dynamic equilibrium. • The
students will also gain the knowledge of the applicability of physical
laws in addressing problems in hydraulics.

**TEXT BOOKS:**

1. Modi, P.N. and Seth S.M. “Hydraulics and fluid mechanics”. Standard
Publishers Distributors, New Delhi,2010. 2. Streeter, V.L. Wylie, E. B.
and Bedford K.W, Fluid Mechanics. (9th ed) Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi,
1998. 3. Geankoplis, C.J. “Transport Processes and Separation Process
Principles”, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall, 2003. 4. McCabe W.L., Smith J.C.
“Unit Operations in Chemical Engineering”, 7th Edition, McGraw – Hill
Int., 2001. 5. Earle, R.L. 2003. Unit Operations in Food Processing.
Pergamon Press. Oxford. U.K. 6. Geankoplis C.J.1999. Transport Process and
Unit Operations. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi.

**REFERENCES:**

1. Bansal, R.K., “A text book of fluid mechanics and hydraulic machinery”,
Laxmi publications (P) Ltd., New Delhi, 2002. 2. Grade, RJ.,.“Fluid
mechanics through problems”. Wiley eastern Ltd., Madras,2002. 3. Jain A.
K. “Fluid Mechanics”. Khanna Publishers 1995.

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