FD3402 Syllabus - Food Additives And Flavours - 2021 Regulation Anna University

FD3402 Syllabus - Food Additives And Flavours - 2021 Regulation Anna University

FD3402

FOOD ADDITIVES AND FLAVOURS

 LTPC

3003

COURSE OBJECTIVES:
• To expose the students to the use of different chemical additives in foods during food processing and preservation.
• To make the students understand the flavour compounds involved in development of flavor.
• To make the students understand the analytical techniques involved in flavor analysis.

UNIT I

ACIDITY REGULATORS, ANTIOXIDANTS AND ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

9

Acidity Regulators – definition, chemical structure, role and importance, pH modulation and taste, acidity profile, permitted acidity regulators, levels of usage and food applications. Antioxidants - Chemistry of oxidative deterioration of food and its constituents and its effect on the quality; defining antioxidant; water soluble and oil soluble antioxidants and their chemical structure, permitted antioxidants; mechanism of action, permitted levels and food application. Preservatives of chemical and microbial origin; mode of action on spoilage organisms and pathogens, factors affecting the performance of preservatives, active forms of preservatives, necessity in a food and levels of usage; permitted preservatives and food applications. Case studies / illustrations.

UNIT II

EMULSIFIERS, STABILIZERS AND THICKENERS

9

Emulsion, surface tension, oil in water and water in oil emulsion, Hydrophilic and Lipophilic balance (HLB), role of emulsifiers, different classes of emulsifiers and their chemical structure, their HLB values and role in emulsion stabilization; role of different stabilizers and other substances in emulsion stability; emulsion formation process and equipment; measurement of emulsion stability; permitted emulsifiers and stabilizers and food applications. Optimisation of emulsifiers and stabilizers – case study. Thickeners – definition, chemical structure, role in food processing and product end characteristics, list of permitted thickeners and food applications.


UNIT III

COLORS, FLAVORS, FLAVOR ENHANCERS AND SWEETENERS

9

Color – Natural and synthetic food colors, their chemical structure, shades imparted, stability, permitted list of colors, usage levels and food application. Flavouring agents- natural and synthetic flavourings, Flavours from vegetables, cocoa, chocolate, coffee, vanilla beans and Spices. Evaluation tests for flavours. Stability of flavours during food processing, Extraction techniques of flavours, Flavour emulsions; Essential oils and Oleoresins; Flavour enhancers- Chemical properties, Functions in foods, Glutamate in foods, Biochemicals & Toxicology Sweeteners – list, structure, taste profile, permitted list, usage levels and food applications.

UNIT IV

FLAVOUR PERCEPTION AND FLAVOUR ANALYSIS

9

Flavour and taste perception, smell and taste sensation, olfaction, flavour compounds, volatile flavour compounds, chemesthesis and chemesthetic responses, tactile response, Aromacompounds, flavour profile, bio-flavour and reconstituted flavour Subjective versus Objective methods of analysis; psychophysics and sensory evaluation; Instrumental analysis; sample handling and artifacts; data handling.

UNIT V

OTHER FOOD ADDITIVES & FOOD INGREDIENTS

9

Anticaking agents, Antifoaming, Glazing agents, Bulking agents, Humectants, Firming agents, Softening agents, Crystal modifiers, Flour improvers, Flour treatment agents, Dough conditioners, and Enzymes – definition, role and mode of action, permitted list of agents and food application. Proteins, starches and lipids as functional ingredient; isolation, modification, specifications, functional properties and applications in foods.

TOTAL: 45 PERIODS

COURSE OUTCOMES:: Upon completion of the course, students will be able to
On completion of the course, the students would be able to understand the CO1 : Principles of chemical preservation of foods. CO2 : Role of different food additives in the processing of different foods and their specific functions in improving the shelf life, quality, texture and other physical and sensory characteristics of foods. CO3 : Regulations and the monitoring agencies involved in controlling the safer use of additives in foods. CO4 : Contribution of different compounds for the development of flavor and Analytical techniques involved in flavor analysis.

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Branen, A. L. “Food Additives” 2nd Edition, CRC press, 2002. 2. Mahindra, S. N. “Food Additives- Characteristics Detection and Estimation”, TATA McGraw Hill, 2000. 3. Reineccius, Gary. “Flavour Chemistry and Technology”. 2nd Edition, Taylor & Francis, 2006.

REFERENCES:
1. Thomas. E. Furia, “Handbook of food additives” 2nd Edition, Volume 2, CRC press, 1980 2. P. Michael Davidson, John N. Sofos, and A. L. Branen, “Antimicrobials in food”, 3rd Edition, CRC press 2005 3. Peter A Williams and Glyn O Philips, “Gums and stabilizers for the Food Industry”, RSC,2007. 4. Madhavi, D. L. S. S. Deshpande, and D. K. Salunkhe. “Food antioxidants”, CRC Press, 1996 5. Fisher, Carolyn and Thomas R. Scott. “Food Flavours Biology and Chemistry”. The Royal Society of Chemistry, 1997. 6. Heath, H.B. and G. Reineccius. “Flavour Chemistry and Technology”. CBS Publishers, 1996. 7. Dr Kay O’Donnell et al, “Sweeteners and sugar alternatives in food technology”, wiley& sons, 2012. 8. Carmen Socaciu, “Food Colorants Chemical and functional properties”, CRC Press,2007. 70 9. Gary Reineccius, “Flavor chemistry and technology”, 2nd Edition, CRC Press, 2016. 10. Ashurst, Philip R. “Food Flavourings”. 3rd Edition, Aspen Publications, 1999. 11. Shahidi, Fereidoon and Chi-Tang Ho. “Flavour Chemistry of Ethnic Foods”. Kluwer Academic Plenum, 1999. 12. Titus A. M. Msagati. “The Chemistry of Food Additives and Preservatives”, Wiley- Blackwell, 2013.

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